23x23 magic square

 

Explanation 23x23 magic square

The 23x23 magic square is odd and a prime number. To construct a 23x23 magic square use the same methods to construct a 5x5, 7x7, 11x11, 13x13, 17x17 and 19x19 magic square. Most perfect magic 23x23 square is panmagic and symmetric.

 

For more detailed explanation see the 5x5 magic square.

 

Construction methods

The methods to construct an 23x23 magic square are:

With the first five methods you can construct simple, symmetric 23x23 magic squares.

 

Use the shift method to construct panmagic 23x23 squares.

 

The ultra magic 23x23 square is panmagic and symmetric.

 

Concentric and ultra 21x21 in 23x23 are specials.